To take a global energy system that relies on fossil fuels for around 80% of primary energy down to net-zero by approximately 2050, a fundamental transformation at speed and scale will be required, including by China, the United States, Europe, and others.
Thanks to conventional farming practices, nearly half of the most productive soil has disappeared in the world in the last 150 years, threatening crop yields and contributing to nutrient pollution, dead zones and erosion.
The first hydrogen trains have been tested in Europe and regular services are scheduled to start from 2022 in Germany, and the world's first hydrogen fuel cell cruise ship should be completed by 2023.
The Escondida and Spence copper mines in Chile will move to 100% renewable energy by the mid-2020s, and last week BHP awarded a new renewable energy contract for its Queensland Coal assets, and the world's first LNG-fuelled Newcastlemax bulk carrier tender.
There have been multilateral efforts to promote cooperation, including the World Health Organization's COVAX Facility, an initiative working toward rapid and fair access to vaccines across the globe with a goal of delivering 2 billion coronavirus doses by 2021's end.
An indication of the grim state of affairs is the fact that global manufacturing PMI is already declining and will fall to an estimated all-time low of 35.4 points in 2020 as compared to 53.8 in 2019.